Aquaculture industry in Russia

The development of the aquaculture industry in Russia is much lower than its potential. The annual output is estimated at 160,000 tonnes at present, accounting for 3-4% of total fish production of the country, only 0.2% of the total aquaculture production in the world. Lack of government support, equipment and backward production technology, aquaculture feed shortages are the main reasons hindering the development of this sector.

Produce

Russia has abundant water resources favorable for aquaculture development. However, only a small fraction of these resources are used. Russia's water resources include: more than 20 million hectares of lakes, about 5 million hectares of reservoirs, nearly 0.5 million hectares of offshore waters, more than 1 million hectares of agricultural ponds, and nearly 150,000 hectares of fishing grounds. The importance of water reservoirs in Siberia, northwestern region and the Urals Federal District. In addition, the total area in the Barents Sea offshore, White, Azov, Black, Caspian and Far East seas estimated 38 million hectares. Currently, fish farms account for about 110,000 hectares of ponds, and 25,000 hectares of offshore waters.

Three aquaculture regions of the Russian flagship 2015 South Federal Region with a total output of 53 200 tons, the North West zone reached 47 800 tonnes Urals and central Federal 27,000 tons. Aquaculture in the Ural Federal District (output 6,100 tons) and Siberia (output of 5,500 tons) by the Federal Fisheries Agency (FFA) said that this cry.

(Nguồn: Cơ quan thủy sản liên bang Nga FFA)

According to FFA, aquaculture production reached 160,000 tonnes in 2015, less than 30,000 tonnes compared to "fisheries development plan up to 2020". The goal of aquaculture output in 2020 will reach 315,000 tons. To accomplish the goal, the remaining 4 years to reach 97% growth rate.

FFA also pointed out during the period 2004-2015, aquaculture production increased from 109,000 to 160,000 tons, up 47% in 11 years. Russia mainly farmed carp species covered them with an annual output reached 110,000 tons.

(Source: Federal Agency for Russian fisheries FFA)

According to FFA, aquaculture production increased significantly in the last 14 years, from 3,800 tons 20,900 tons in 2000 to 2014. However, the head of the Association of Russian fisheries, RosRybKhoz said the cause of the increase in output salmon in 2015 is limited due to the lack of technology and modern farm. Autumn 2015, some salmon production facilities damaged Russia's major infectious anemia due, which has killed 187,000 fish. For sturgeon, the annual output is negligible and almost unchanged during the last decade, reaching 2,000 tons 2,100 tons in 2000 and 2014.

Experts believe that with the current economic environment, the aquaculture industry can only develop when there is a financial assistance of the government to invest 1.5 billion rubles initially. By 2013, the average return of the aquaculture farm at about 20-25%. However, in 2014, due to the ruble devaluation and food embargo of Russia are in place, the industry average profit fell 5-7%. In addition, the need to invest more in food, electricity, and seed. Experts also said that businesses do not invest in the field of aquaculture immediately because the situation is very risky and complicated. 2015, the Russian government subsidies to 400 million rubles to support the development of aquaculture including grants credit interest payments; construction, reconstruction and modernization of the aquaculture facility. The grant has been allocated in the framework of the program "Development of Fisheries Sector" and "Development of sturgeon breeding" federal. According to FFA officials, the government is planning to allocate 600 million rubles for the development of the aquaculture sector in 2016 and 2017.

In International Conference "Aquaculture 2016" took place in Moscow from 08-11 / 02/2016, most of the speakers giving problems hinder the development of the aquaculture sector in Fall:

Lack of feed and raw materials for aquaculture production; According to Vasiliy Sokolov, the deputy head of the FFA, feed production for aquaculture in Russia in 2015 reached 100,000 tons, while the demand is 250,000 tons. The objective given in development programs fisheries sector by 2020 the demand for animal feed will increase to about 400000-450000 tons.

Feeding technique is not effective;

Low labor-effective in the aquaculture farm. According to the Ministry of Agriculture, the annual yield of aquaculture in Russia was estimated at 1 t / ha, lower than the average yield of 2-3 times compared with the world.

- The legal framework of the Russian aquaculture is also a challenge for the industry due to the inconsistency in the regulations at the federal level and the implementation at the regional level.

Lack of financial instruments and higher credit interest rates for enterprises. According to the speakers, the average return of an aquaculture enterprises reached only 5-7%. In addition, poor infrastructure is a huge hindrance for the sector. 50% of food is imported aquaculture. Because of the ruble devaluation, the cost of food increased significantly. That these costs accounted for 70% of the total cost of farming. In addition, production equipment backward feed is also an obstacle to efficient food source in Russia.

-He Said Sokolov also has 40 manufacturing facilities in Russia to feed aquaculture. However, only a few of which are renovated. Most of the plants were old and not equipped with the system producing advanced feed . Usually, The main ingredient in fish feed is fishmeal, but Russia only produced in small quantities. Although not produce enough fishmeal to meet domestic demand, Russia has exported to China. Moreover, fishmeal production technology of Russia today are ineffective. Russia does not produce inputs, so they have to depend entirely on imported sources of raw materials there.